Welcome to Edumir!

I’m Mir, a Research Scholar of Physics with specialties in Electronics and Computer Science. This site contains some useful articles related to Physics and Electronics. These articles are accessible for absolutely free. The motive is to provide free content to the students who prefer self-study with the help of the internet.

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Sample Articles

  • What are Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors?
    This is the second article on Semiconductor Materials. You can read previous and Next articles on Semiconductors by clicking on the Previous Article and Next Article buttons respectively at the end of this article. In the first article, we discussed the basic properties, examples and applications of Semiconductors. Different types of semiconductor materials like intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors are mentioned there, but not in detail. In this article, I’m going … Read more
  • Electrical components used in electronic & electric circuit
    An electrical circuit consists of some electrical components and a source of voltage or current. These circuit components perform all the activities in a circuit. We need to know the function of every circuit component to use these properly in a circuit. Examples of some electrical components are resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, transistors etc. In this article, I’m going to discuss some important electrical and electronic circuit components with their … Read more
  • Applications of Zener diode as voltage regulator
    We already discussed the Semiconductor material and a semiconductor device p-n junction diode. From the latter one, we became to know that a normal P-N junction diode cannot operate at high reverse bias voltage because of the breakdown in diodes. To operate at high reverse bias voltage, a diode is to be designed in a special way. Zener diode is such kind of device that can operate well in the … Read more
  • p-n junction diode – formation, biasing circuit & curve
    In the first two articles, we learned the basic things about semiconductor materials. Now, we have entered into the applications of Semiconductors. Semiconductor materials are used to develop many electronic devices. A p-n junction diode is one of those. In this article, I’m going to discuss the formation, characteristics curves, depletion layer, potential barrier, bias circuit diagram, working principle and uses of a p-n junction diode. Contents of this article: … Read more
  • Difference between NPN and PNP Transistor in tabular form
    Transistor is one of the basic circuit components for electronic operations. The main purpose of a Transistor is to Amplify electronic signals at the output of a circuit. We already know that there are two types of Transistors – NPN and PNP. An NPN Transistor can be formed by sandwiching p-type material or acceptor atoms between two n-type materials in a semiconductor substrate. Similarly, a PNP Transistor forms due to … Read more
  • BJT Transistor – NPN and PNP BJT Transistors
    Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is one of the very important electronic circuit components in the world of electronics. Scientist William Shockley discovered the first Transistor in 1948. In modern days, the technology is very much progressive and many variety of transistor have been discovered. These transistors are widely used in analog and digital electronics. In short, semiconductor diodes and transistors are the basic components in computer world. In this article, … Read more
  • Input and output characteristics of Transistor |curve
    In another article, we have discussed the Bipolar Junction Transistor and the differences between NPN and PNP transistors. Transistor characteristic curve is a very much useful parameter to understand the basic principle and operation of a Transistor. Therefore, in this article, we are going to discuss the input and output characteristics of a Transistor. The main discussion is on the transistor characteristic curves of BJT. There are three possible configurations … Read more
  • Electric Field Intensity – definition, formula, units
    In the first two articles on Electrostatics, we learned about electric charges and their distributions on a Conductor. We became to know that a static electric charge produces an electric field and a moving charge produces a magnetic field around it. Electric charges can move due to electrostatic force and this force comes from the electric field. In this article, I’m going to explore the Electric Field and its Intensity. … Read more
  • Classification of Power Amplifiers | types of BJT amplifiers
    An amplifier can produce an enlarged but exact version of the small input signal at the output of an electronic circuit. Electronic devices like TV, radio, tape recorder, etc. require amplifiers for their operations. These devices do not operate in the same way. Some devices need to amplify the current, some devices require to amplify voltage, etc. Again, in some devices, a part of the input wave is to be … Read more
  • Properties of electric field lines with diagrams
    In the first four articles on electrostatics, we learned about electric charges, electric charge distributions, electric field and Coulomb’s law of electric force. We became to know that the charges of the same sign will go away and opposite charges will come closer due to electrostatic interactions. The paths through which the charges move due to the electrostatic force are the electric field lines or electric lines of force. In … Read more
  • Types of electromagnetic waves in physics – properties uses
    We know that an static charge produces an electric field around it. Again, when a charge is in motion, it produces a magnetic field around it. But do you know how do electromagnetic waves produce? An accelerating charge produces electromagnetic waves where both the electric field and magnetic field propagates together. This is called an electromagnetic field. The electric and magnetic energy flows in an electromagnetic field in the form … Read more
  • How to find the direction of Magnetic field? Thumb rule
    Scientist Hans Christian Oersted first observed the deflection of a magnetic needle or compass placed near a current carrying wire. This concludes that the current carrying wire can produce a magnetic field around it. In another article, we have discussed the Origin, definition, unit and dimension of magnetic field. Since, the magnetic field is a vector quantity, it will have a direction. In this article, we are going to discuss … Read more
  • Intensity of Magnetic Field – formula, definition (1 Tesla)
    If we bring a bar magnet near another bar magnet then a force acts between the magnets. Same poles of magnets repel and opposite poles attract each other. This interaction is very similar to electric charges, but not exactly. Now question is, what makes this to happen? The answer is the magnetic force in magnetic field. We already know that an electric charge can produce an electric field around it … Read more
  • Properties of Magnetic field lines with diagram
    Earlier we have discussed the Electric field and Electric field lines. Similar to the electric field lines, there exist magnetic field lines in a Magnetic field. In this article, we are going to discuss the definition and the properties of Magnetic field lines and the diagram of magnetic field lines for a bar magnet, solenoid, straight wire and circular wire. Contents in this article: What are the magnetic field lines? … Read more
  • Properties of electric charge class 12 physics
    We have discussed almost everything on electric charges in another article (link is given in the related posts section at below). In this article, we are going to discuss the basic properties of an electric charge. This will be helpful for the students of class 10 and class 12. Contents in this article: What is electric charge? Properties of electric charge Quantization of electric charge Electronic Theory of Charge Law … Read more
  • Basic logic gates with truth tables & diagram | 2 & 3 input
    Logic gates are the basic building blocks of digital electronics. These gates have significant roles in the construction of logical circuits for computers. Digital electronic devices contain integrated circuits (ICs) which are made of logical gates. These gates follow different logical operations. In this article, I’m going to explore all the basic logic gates with truth tables, circuit diagrams, Boolean expressions, operations and uses. This will be helpful for students … Read more

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