The laboratory activities provided on this wiki are considered open source and available for free use in non-commercial educational and academic settings. The only requirement is that they continue to retain the attribution to Analog Devices Inc.

Supplying them on the ADI wiki allows registered users to contribute to the materials posted here improving the content and keeping them up to date. Basic information and material on circuit simulationincluding tool links and usage information. Most of the labs are populated with LTspice resource files which contain the schematics of the circuits discussed at a specific topic.

This document outlines how labs might be altered for use with either M1K or M2K. The labs are generally written to be performed using just the components provided in the Analog Parts Kit, ADALPsupplied through ADI and our authorized distribution channels, however additional devices are sometimes needed additional information on component selection included below.

Oscilloscope Terminology. Learning to mathematically analyze circuits requires much study and practice. Typically, students practice by working through lots of sample problems and checking their answers against those provided by the textbook or the instructor. While this is good, there is a much better way. For successful circuit-building exercises, follow these steps:. Carefully measure and record all component values prior to circuit construction, choosing resistor values high enough to make damage to any active components unlikely.

Draw the schematic diagram for the circuit to be analyzed. Or perhaps print out the schematics shown in these lab activities.

Before applying power to your circuit check the accuracy of the circuit's construction, following each wire to each connection point, and verifying these elements one-by-one on the diagram.

Mathematically analyze the circuit, solving for all voltage and current values. Circuit simulation software such as LTSpice can be very useful for automating this process. If there are any substantial errors greater than a few percentcarefully check your circuit's construction against the diagram, then carefully re-calculate the values and re-measure. One way you can save time and reduce the possibility of error is to begin with a very simple circuit and incrementally add components to increase its complexity after each analysis, rather than building a whole new circuit for each practice activity.

Another time-saving technique is to re-use the same components in a variety of different circuit configurations. This way, you won't have to measure any component's value more than once. When performing lab tests, whether in college or industry, the lab report is vital for communicating the results in a logically ordered, readable fashion to others. To ensure readability, the report should be done using a word processor that can do text formatting, as well as math equation editing and drawing simple diagrams and schematics.

A spell checker is useful to avoid spelling mistakes. All sections of the lab should be organized in some logical fashion, for example in the order the steps were performed. Material in later sections should reference any related material in previous sections. In order to write a successful lab report it should contain the following key elements: objectives, pre lab calculations, equipment used, methods, results discussion, and end with conclusions.

The objectives section should be a brief one paragraph summary of the objectives of the lab experiments. In other words, this section should contain a short list of the steps to be performed as well as the expected test results. Any preparation that was done prior to the lab should be presented here. This section should contain a short list of tests to be performed as well as the expected results.Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.

Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance[1] one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship: [2].

More specifically, Ohm's law states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current. However some materials do not obey Ohm's law, these are called non-ohmic. The law was named after the German physicist Georg Ohmwho, in a treatise published indescribed measurements of applied voltage and current through simple electrical circuits containing various lengths of wire.

Ohm explained his experimental results by a slightly more complex equation than the modern form above see History. In physics, the term Ohm's law is also used to refer to various generalizations of the law; for example the vector form of the law used in electromagnetics and material science:. This reformulation of Ohm's law is due to Gustav Kirchhoff. In Januarybefore Georg Ohm 's work, Henry Cavendish experimented with Leyden jars and glass tubes of varying diameter and length filled with salt solution.

He measured the current by noting how strong a shock he felt as he completed the circuit with his body. Cavendish wrote that the "velocity" current varied directly as the "degree of electrification" voltage. He did not communicate his results to other scientists at the time, [5] and his results were unknown until Maxwell published them in He found for a dry pile that the relationship between the two parameters was not proportional under certain meteorological conditions.

Ohm did his work on resistance in the years andand published his results in as the book Die galvanische Kette, mathematisch bearbeitet "The galvanic circuit investigated mathematically". For experiments, he initially used voltaic pilesbut later used a thermocouple as this provided a more stable voltage source in terms of internal resistance and constant voltage. He used a galvanometer to measure current, and knew that the voltage between the thermocouple terminals was proportional to the junction temperature.

He then added test wires of varying length, diameter, and material to complete the circuit. He found that his data could be modeled through the equation. From this, Ohm determined his law of proportionality and published his results. In terms of the length of the wire this becomes. Thus, Ohm's coefficients are. Ohm's law was probably the most important of the early quantitative descriptions of the physics of electricity. We consider it almost obvious today.

When Ohm first published his work, this was not the case; critics reacted to his treatment of the subject with hostility.

They called his work a "web of naked fancies" [10] and the German Minister of Education proclaimed that "a professor who preached such heresies was unworthy to teach science. These factors hindered the acceptance of Ohm's work, and his work did not become widely accepted until the s.

However, Ohm received recognition for his contributions to science well before he died. In the s, Ohm's law was known as such and was widely considered proved, and alternatives, such as " Barlow's law ", were discredited, in terms of real applications to telegraph system design, as discussed by Samuel F. Morse in The electron was discovered in by J. Thomsonand it was quickly realized that it is the particle charge carrier that carries electric currents in electric circuits. In the first classical model of electrical conduction, the Drude modelwas proposed by Paul Drudewhich finally gave a scientific explanation for Ohm's law.

In this model, a solid conductor consists of a stationary lattice of atoms ionswith conduction electrons moving randomly in it. A voltage across a conductor causes an electric fieldwhich accelerates the electrons in the direction of the electric field, causing a drift of electrons which is the electric current.

However the electrons collide with and scatter off of the atoms, which randomizes their motion, thus converting the kinetic energy added to the electron by the field to heat thermal energy. Using statistical distributions, it can be shown that the average drift velocity of the electrons, and thus the current, is proportional to the electric field, and thus the voltage, over a wide range of voltages.

**Introduce about electrical circuit lab equipment - Bangla -**

The development of quantum mechanics in the s modified this picture somewhat, but in modern theories the average drift velocity of electrons can still be shown to be proportional to the electric field, thus deriving Ohm's law.

In Arnold Sommerfeld applied the quantum Fermi-Dirac distribution of electron energies to the Drude model, resulting in the free electron model.

A year later, Felix Bloch showed that electrons move in waves Bloch waves through a solid crystal lattice, so scattering off the lattice atoms as postulated in the Drude model is not a major process; the electrons scatter off impurity atoms and defects in the material.

The final successor, the modern quantum band theory of solids, showed that the electrons in a solid cannot take on any energy as assumed in the Drude model but are restricted to energy bands, with gaps between them of energies that electrons are forbidden to have.This is a lab event, so practice with previously built circuits, and using ammeters, voltmeters, and multimeters to take various measurements.

Know the eletrostaticsish stuff There might be multiple choice on this. KNOW resistor codes, and actually practice with real resistors, because sometimes its hard to tell the difference between colors, and its good to practice, or else you might mix up like brown and red or something. Don't just know stuff about parallel plate capacitance.

Actually work with capacitance in circuits, like equivalent capacitance.

## Electronic circuit simulation

Split up the test. Trust your partner. You don't have enough time to work together. Buit when it comes to the lab part, you have to work together.

Have both people help take measurements, and then split up the calculations after the measurements are taken. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. I'll add more later Basically, study everything on the sheet. It's helpful to get a physics book, and just do random complex circuits. Know theory and practice. Categories :. Cancel Save.Analog Devices is as passionate about educating the next generation of young circuit design engineers as it is about pioneering the next technological breakthrough.

The Active Learning Program is a platform where Analog Devices, working with leading educational institutions has created and deployed new hands on learning tools for the next generation of analog circuit design engineers.

The laboratory activities provided on these wiki pages are considered open source and available for free use in non-commercial educational and academic settings. The only requirement is that they continue to retain the attribution to Analog Devices Inc. Supplying them on the ADI wiki allows registered users to login and contribute to the materials posted here improving the content and keeping them up to date. This document outlines how the labs might be altered for use with M2K.

They are generally written to be performed with just the components provided in the Analog Parts Kit, ADALP, supplied through ADI distribution channels, however additional devices are sometimes needed. Other sources of components can of course be used.

### Electric Circuit Analysis/Circuit Analysis - Lab1

Learning to mathematically analyze circuits requires much study and practice. Typically, students practice by working through lots of sample problems and checking their answers against those provided by the textbook or the instructor.

While this is good, there is a much better way. For successful circuit-building exercises, follow these steps:. Carefully measure and record all component values prior to circuit construction, choosing resistor values high enough to make damage to any active components unlikely. Draw the schematic diagram for the circuit to be analyzed. Or perhaps print out the schematics shown in these lab activities.

## Digital Integrated Circuits (lab)

Before applying power to your circuit check the accuracy of the circuit's construction, following each wire to each connection point, and verifying these elements one-by-one on the diagram. Mathematically analyze the circuit, solving for all voltage and current values. Circuit simulation software such as LTSpice can be very useful for automating this process. If there are any substantial errors greater than a few percentcarefully check your circuit's construction against the diagram, then carefully re-calculate the values and re-measure.

One way you can save time and reduce the possibility of error is to begin with a very simple circuit and incrementally add components to increase its complexity after each analysis, rather than building a whole new circuit for each practice activity. Another time-saving technique is to re-use the same components in a variety of different circuit configurations. This way, you won't have to measure any component's value more than once. When performing lab tests, whether in college or industry, the lab report is vital for communicating the results in a logically ordered, readable fashion to others.

To ensure readability, the report should be done using a word processor that can do text formatting, as well as math equation editing and drawing simple diagrams and schematics. A spell checker is useful to avoid spelling mistakes. All sections of the lab should be organized in some logical fashion, for example in the order the steps were performed. Material in later sections should reference any related material in previous sections.The open-circuit testor no-load testis one of the methods used in electrical engineering to determine the no-load impedance in the excitation branch of a transformer.

The secondary of the transformer is left open-circuited. A wattmeter is connected to the primary. An ammeter is connected in series with the primary winding. A voltmeter is optional since the applied voltage is the same as the voltmeter reading. Rated voltage is applied at primary. If the applied voltage is normal voltage then normal flux will be set up. Since iron loss is a function of applied voltage, normal iron loss will occur.

Hence the iron loss is maximum at rated voltage. This maximum iron loss is measured using the wattmeter. Since the impedance of the series winding of the transformer is very small compared to that of the excitation branch, all of the input voltage is dropped across the excitation branch.

Thus the wattmeter measures only the iron loss. This test only measures the combined iron losses consisting of the hysteresis loss and the eddy current loss. Although the hysteresis loss is less than the eddy current loss, it is not negligible. The two losses can be separated by driving the transformer from a variable frequency source since the hysteresis loss varies linearly with supply frequency and the eddy current loss varies with the frequency squared.

Since the secondary of the transformer is open, the primary draws only no-load current, which will have some copper loss. This no-load current is very small and because the copper loss in the primary is proportional to the square of this current, it is negligible. There is no copper loss in the secondary because there is no secondary current. The secondary side of the transformer is left open, so there is no load on the secondary side.

Therefore, power is no longer transferred from primary to secondary in this approximation, and negligible current goes through the secondary windings. Since no current passes through the secondary windings, no magnetic field is created, which means zero current is induced on the primary side. This is crucial to the approximation because it allows us to ignore the series impedance since it is assumed that no current passes through this impedance.

The parallel shunt component on the equivalent circuit diagram is used to represent the core losses. These core losses come from the change in the direction of the flux and eddy currents. Eddy current losses are caused by currents induced in the iron due to the alternating flux.

### Circuit Lab

In contrast to the parallel shunt component, the series component in the circuit diagram represents the winding losses due to the resistance of the coil windings of the transformer. Currentvoltage and power are measured at the primary winding to ascertain the admittance and power-factor angle. Another method of determining the series impedance of a real transformer is the short circuit test.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved Transformer topics. Agbioeletric Balun Buchholz relay Bushing Center tap Circle diagram Condition monitoring of transformers Copper loss Dissolved gas analysis Electrical insulation paper Growler High-leg delta Induction regulator Leakage inductance Magnet wire Metadyne Open-circuit test Polarity Polychlorinated biphenyl Quadrature booster Resolver Resonant inductive coupling Severity factor Short-circuit test Stacking factor Synchro Tap changer Toroidal inductors and transformers Transformer oil Transformer oil testing Transformer utilization factor Vector group.

Amorphous metal transformer Austin transformer Autotransformer Buck—boost transformer Capacitor voltage transformer Distribution transformer Delta-wye transformer Energy efficient transformer Flyback transformer Grounding transformer Instrument transformer Current transformer Potential transformer Isolation transformer Linear variable differential transformer Pad-mounted transformer Parametric transformer Planar transformers Rotary transformer Rotary variable differential transformer Scott-T transformer Solid-state transformer Trigger transformer Variable-frequency transformer Zigzag transformer.

Categories : Electrical tests Electric transformers. Hidden categories: CS1 errors: external links. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.We're making it easier for engineers, students, and hobbyists to design, analyze, build, and share circuits.

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Sign in or create an account. Zero-Friction Electronics Design.It was previously an event in, andwhen it was called Shock Value in Division B. Circuit Lab is a laboratory event which deals with the various components and properties of direct current DC circuits. Historically, the fields which have been tested in this event are DC circuit concepts and DC circuit analysis both theory and practice. Let's take an example of a battery, for now. When you touch a wire onto both ends of the battery at the same time, you have created a circuit.

It is generally ill advised to attempt this experiment. Not only will there be nothing to see, but short-circuiting a battery is potentially dangerous. What just happened?

Current flowed from one end of the battery to the other through the wire. Therefore, the definition of a circuit can simply be a never-ending looped pathway for electrons the battery counts as a pathway! There are two requirements which must be met to establish an electric circuit.

The first is clearly demonstrated by the above activity. There must be a closed conducting path which extends from the positive terminal to the negative terminal.

It is not enough that there is a closed connecting loop; the loop itself must extend from the positive terminal to the negative terminal of the electrochemical cell.

An electric circuit is like a water circuit at a water park. The flow of charge through the wires is similar to the flow of water through the pipes and along the slides of the water park.

If a pipe gets plugged or broken such that water cannot make a complete path through the circuit, then the flow of water will soon cease. In an electric circuit, all connections must be made and made by conducting materials capable of carrying a charge. Metallic materials are conductors and can be inserted into the circuit to successfully light the bulb.

There must be a closed conducting loop from the positive to the negative terminal in order to establish a circuit and to have a current. Current is rate of flow of charge past a particular point or region. In the context of electric circuits, charge is normally carried by electrons, so we consider current to be the rate of flow of electrons past a certain point in the circuit.

In most conductors, the atoms are bonded in such a way so that the electrons are able to move around the material without being localized to a particular atom. This allows the electrons to "flow. However, electricity or electric current moves at the speed of light.

To rationalize this, imagine a long, thin tube representing the wire filled with a single-file row of ball bearings representing the electrons. Pushing a ball bearing into the tube on one end causes another bearing to fall out the other end almost immediately.