Electronic circuit components with their uses

All the electrical and electronic circuits consist of circuit components and current source or voltage source. This circuit components perform all the activities in an electric or electronic circuit. So, we need to know the purpose of every circuit components to use these in a circuit. Examples of some circuit components are Resistor, Capacitor, Inductor, Diode, Transistor etc. In this article, I am going to discuss the electric and electronic circuit components and their uses.

Contents in this article:

  • Linear circuit components
  • Non-linear circuit components
  • Active circuit components and uses
  • Passive circuit components
  • Resistor and its uses
  • Capacitor and its uses
  • Inductor and its uses
  • Diode and its uses
  • Transistor and its uses
  • Important questions

There are type types of circuit components on the basis of the composition materials – Electric and Electronic circuit components. The circuit components made of the conductors are the electric circuit components and the circuit components made of semiconductors or vacuum tubes are the electronic circuit components. Resistors. Capacitors, Inductors are the electrical circuit components as they made of metals like copper wire. On the other hand, Diodes and Transistors are the electronic circuit elements as their main compositions are the semiconductors like Silicon, Germanium etc.

Circuit components have two categories based on their Current-Voltage curve –

  • Linear circuit components
  • Non-linear circuit components

Linear circuit components:

The linear circuit components are the circuit components having linear Current-Voltage relation . Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff’s law are applicable for the circuit consisting of linear circuit components.

Examples: Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors are the examples of the Linear circuit components.

Non-Linear Circuit components:

Non-linear circuit components are just opposite to linear circuit components. This type of circuit components have non-linear nature in Current-Voltage curve. Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff’s law are not applicable for the circuit consisting of non-linear circuit components.

Examples:  Diode and Transistor are the two examples of Non-Linear circuit components.

Again, there are two type of circuit components based on their function or work–

  • Active Circuit components
  • Passive Circuit components

Active Circuit Components:

The circuit components which can Amplify or Rectify the input signal at output are the Active circuit components.

Examples: Diode can rectify the ac signal, so it is an active circuit component. Again, Transistor can amplify the input signal, so Transistor is also an active circuit component.

Passive Circuit Components:

The circuit components which neither can amplify nor can rectify the input signals at output are the Passive circuit components.

Examples:  Resistor, Capacitor, Inductor are the passive circuit components.

Use of Resistors in electric circuits:


Resistor is a linear and passive circuit component which opposes the current flow through an electronic circuit. So, main purpose of resistor it to control the current through the circuit. Resistance is the opposition on current flow due a resistor.

Use of a Capacitor in electric circuit:


The main purpose of a Capacitor is to store electric charges on it and to release the stored charges whenever the circuit requires it. The process of storage of charges is called the charging of capacitor and the process of releasing the charges is known as the discharging of capacitor.

 Capacitor gives high impedance to DC and low impedance to AC. Therefore, the main purpose of a capacitor is to block the DC to flow further in the circuit. Capacitor which is used to block DC is called the Blocking capacitor. Also, capacitor connected in parallel to a high resistance can bypass AC through it. The capacitors using to bypass the AC are the bypass capacitors.

 Capacitors have huge applications in our daily life, almost every electric and electronic device like ceiling fan, battery, power bank, memory circuit (DRAM), Motherboard of TV, computer, Laptop and Smartphone, etc. use capacitor.

Use of Inductor in Electric circuit:


Like Resistors and Capacitors, the inductors are also the linear and passive circuit element. But the use of inductors is different from the uses of the Resistors and Capacitors. Inductors offer high impedance to AC and low impedance to DC. Therefore, Inductors are used to block alternating current (AC) to flow through it.

Chock coil has high inductance and low resistance which is used in Tube lights to oppose AC to pass through the Tube light.

Use of Diode in electronic circuit:

Semiconductor diode is a non-linear circuit element used as a rectifier to convert alternating current into direct current. A diode can also perform the switching activities in electronic circuits. Click here for more details on diode.

Use of Transistor in electronic circuit:


Transistor is the non-linear and active circuit element used as an Amplifier to amplify the magnitude of input signal at output. Transistors also used as a switch in electronic circuits. Click here for more details on transistor.

Important questions on circuit components:

Here are some important practice questions on electric circuit components. One can find all the answers of these questions from this article.

1. Is the capacitor active or passive circuit component?

2. Is capacitor linear or nonlinear circuit component?

3. Why Transistor is an active circuit element?

4. Is Inductor linear or nonlinear circuit element?

5. Is Inductor active or passive circuit component?

6. Why diode is an active circuit element?

These are the basic circuit components for electric and electronic circuits. This is all from this article. If you have any doubt related to this topic feel free to ask me in the comment section.

Thank You!

Related Posts: