Solar energy is a trending topic of science in recent time. The non-renewable sources of energy are about to extinct due to its limited storage on the Earth. Therefore, alternative sources of energy are needed to fulfill our daily needs of energy. There are some renewable sources of energy like Solar energy, Wind energy, Geo-thermal … Read more

## NOT AND OR gate using NAND gate – circuit diagram

Earlier we have discussed the basic logic gates with truth table, circuit diagram and Boolean expression. The three basic logic gates in Computer are OR gate, AND gate and NOT gate. The universal logic gates like NAND gate and NOR gate are also introduced with you. All logical gates can be designed by using universal … Read more

## XNOR gate circuit diagram using NAND & NOR gate

XNOR gate is another logical gate which is available in integrated circuit (IC) form. In other articles, we have discussed that NAND gate and XOR gate are also available in IC form. Therefore, these type of logic gates are very much useful in advanced digital electronics. Basic logic gates (OR gate, AND gate and NOT … Read more

## Karnaugh map for simplification of Boolean expression

Karnaugh map is a very useful tool for simplification of Boolean expression in digital electronics. The other name of Karnaugh map is K-map or K map. It can represent the Boolean equation both in sum of products (SOP) form and product of sum (POS) form. There are two ways to simplify Boolean expressions. One is … Read more

## Rules of Boolean algebra for simplification

Boolean algebra is a very useful method for simplification of binary expressions. There is no connection between the general algebra we know and the Boolean algebra. Boolean algebra deals with the binary bits only. There are different laws of Boolean algebra to simplify the Boolean expressions. In this article, we are going to discuss all … Read more

## NOR gate truth table with 2 and 3 inputs

NOR gate is one of the universal logic gates along with the NAND gate. Now, how to make NOR gate? How does NOR gate work? One can make a NOR gate by connecting an OR gate and a NOT gate in series. So, the main work of a NOR gate is to give the inverted … Read more

## NAND gate with 3 inputs – truth table and circuit diagram

NAND gate is the most important logic gate in digital electronics. It is one of the universal logic gates. Because, other logical gates can be designed by using NAND gates only. This gate is available in IC form. IC7400 is a popular IC consists of 4 NAND gates. In other articles, XOR gate, XNOR gate … Read more

## p type semiconductor material – formation, properties

Earlier we have written on intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. There are two types of extrinsic semiconductors – n-type and p-type. We already have discussed n type semiconductor materials in another article. In this article, we are going to discuss p type semiconductor material, its formation, properties, examples and uses. One can differentiate n-type and p-type … Read more

## n type semiconductor material – formation, properties

Impurity mixed semiconductors are known as the extrinsic semiconductors. Now, there are two types of extrinsic semiconductors. These are n type and p type semiconductors. They have different properties and the ways of formation are also different. We already have discussed p type semiconductors in another article. In this article, we are going to discuss … Read more

## Formula for impedance in electronics RL RLC & LC circuit

Impedance is a frequently used word in electronics and physics. We already have discussed the resistance of a conductor in another article. Impedance is almost the same as the resistance. But there are some differences in presentation of impedance. In this article, we are going to discuss the definition, units and formula for impedance in … Read more