How to find refractive index of a material? [ 4 ways]

In another article, we already have discussed the refractive index of a material and most of the facts related to refractive index. The value of the index of refraction is different for different materials. So, we need a process to know or calculate the refractive index of different materials. In this article, we are going … Read more

Refractive index – definition, formula, dependence, List

In the chapter of refraction of light, we became to know that the light bends while passing from one medium to another medium. Even this fact can be seen in daily life also. Now, the question is, why light bends when it changes medium? This is due to different refractive indices of different medium. In … Read more

XNOR gate circuit diagram using NAND & NOR gate

XNOR gate is another logic gate which is available in integrated circuit (IC) form. In another article, we have discussed that NAND gate and XOR gate are also available in IC form. Therefore, these type of logic gates are very much useful in advanced digital electronics. Basic logic gates (OR gate, AND gate and NOT … Read more

Karnaugh map for simplification of Boolean expression

Karnaugh map is a very useful tool for simplification of Boolean expression in digital electronics. The other name of Karnaugh map is K-map or K map. It can represent the Boolean equation both in sum of products (SOP) form and product of sum (POS) form. There are two ways to simplify Boolean expressions. One is … Read more

Rules of Boolean algebra for simplification

Boolean algebra is a very useful method for simplification of binary expressions. There is no connection between the general algebra we know and the Boolean algebra. Boolean algebra deals with the binary bits only. There are different laws of Boolean algebra to simplify the Boolean expressions. In this article, we are going to discuss all … Read more

NOR gate truth table with 2 and 3 inputs

NOR gate is one of the universal logic gates along with the NAND gate. Now, how to make NOR gate? How does NOR gate work? One can make a NOR gate by connecting an OR gate and a NOT gate in series. So, the main work of a NOR gate is to give the inverted … Read more

NAND gate with 3 inputs – truth table and circuit diagram

NAND gate is the most important logic gate in digital electronics. It is one of the universal logic gates. Because, other gates can be designed by using NAND gates only. In other articles, XOR gate, XNOR gate and basic logic gates are designed by using NAND gates. A NAND gate can have infinite number of … Read more

Work done by tension force – formula and derivation

In another article, we have discussed the tension of a string or rope. We found that tension of string is a kind of force. Again, we know that a body can move due to the application of external force. So, the work done by a body depends on the force on it. Then, it seems … Read more

How to find tension in a string? | Theory & solved problem

If you drop a ball from the roof of your house, then you will see that the ball is falling down due to the gravitational force. Now, attach the ball at one of the ends of a string and fix the other end of the string at somewhere on the roof. Then drop the ball … Read more

Voltage drop across capacitor – formula and concepts

A Capacitor is one of the important components in electrical circuit. We have discussed on capacitors, their combinations and other related facts in other articles. Like other components (resistors, inductors), a capacitor also offer an opposition to the current flow through it. From the Ohm’s law, we get an expression for voltage drop across a … Read more