Transformer is an **electric device** which transfers the alternating **electric power** from one circuit to another circuit keeping the frequency of signal same. It can change the amplitude of alternating voltage to our desired value at the output. But the power remains same both at primary and secondary coil. In this article, we am going to discuss the use and working formula of a Transformer. Also, the working principle of step up transformer and step down transformer will be discussed here.

**Contents in this article:**

*Construction of a Transformer**Working principle of a Transformer**Working formula of Transformer**Use of a Transformer**Working formula**of**Step Up transformer**Working formula**of**Step Down Transformer*

**Construction of a Transformer:**

A transformer consists of two coils – one is primary coil and other is secondary coil. Both coils may have equal or different number of turns. These two coils are wound on a rectangular core made of soft iron or steel. The Input signal is used to connect at the primary coil and load is connected to secondary coil.

**Working principle of a Transformer:**

Transformer works on the principle of **electromagnetic induction**. When current flows through primary coil it produces **magnetic field **around it including the position of secondary coil. Since current is alternating**, magnetic flux **linked with** **secondary coil changes. Then an EMF induces in secondary coil. Here coils are wound in a soft iron core so that the maximum flux can pass through the secondary coil and maximum EMF induces. Again, some eddy current induces in the cross-section of the core which causes the loss in energy. To reduce the effect of **eddy current** the core of the Transformer is laminated into several parts.

The **induced EMF** in secondary coil is the output voltage corresponding to the applied input voltage at primary coil. Voltage of each coil is different and dependents of the number of turns. But the output voltage in each coil remains same. Thus, it transfers the same **electric power** from input to output.

**Working Formula of Transformer:**

** **A Transformer has only two basic working formulae. If **N _{p}**

_{ }and

**N**be the number of turns and

_{s}**V**and

_{p }**V**

_{s}_{ }be the voltages in primary and secondary coil respectively, then

i) The ratio the voltage at primary and secondary is equal to the corresponding ratio of Number of turns in those coils.

Hence, \small {\color{Blue} \frac{V_{p}}{V_{s}} = \frac{N_{p}}{N_{s}}} ………………(1)

ii) Again, total power at primary coil is equal to the total power of secondary coil.

so, **I _{P}V_{P} = I_{s}V_{s}** ……………… (2)

Equation-1 and equation-2 give the basic formula for a transformer.

**Types of Transformer:**

On the basis of working, there are two types of Transformer,

- Step Up Transformer
- Step Down Transformer

**Use of a Transformer:**

The main purpose of a Transformer is to transfer the **electric powe**r from input to output keeping the frequency same. Step Up Transformer gives greater output voltage and lower output current. On the other hand, step down transformer gives lower output voltage and higher output current. One can use step up or step down transformer as their requirements. In this purpose transformer is also used in **rectifiers**.

**Working formula of Step Up Transformer:**

Step Up transformer helps to increase the magnitude of voltage at the output. But the power and frequency remain same as that of the input. Working principle and equations of Step Up transformer are similar to that of a general transformer. But the turn ratio of the coils are different. Secondary coil has greater number of turns than the primary one (**N _{s}>N**

_{p}).

In the above diagram we can see that the magnitude or the amplitude of alternating voltage increases ( from 5 volts to 10 volts) after passing through the transformer. Clearly it is a Voltage step up transformer. Since power remains same, the current at output will decrease due to increase in voltage. So, at the same time this transformer is stepping down the current at the output. Thus, the **Voltage step up transformer is also a current step down transformer**.

**Working formula of Step Down Transformer:**

The working principle of a step down transformer is similar to that of a step up transformer. But a step down transformer decreases the magnitude of voltage at output keeping the power and frequency same. To construct a step down transformer we need to make the number of turns in secondary coil smaller than that of the primary coil (**N _{p}>N_{s}**). The number of turns in the coils decide whether it will be a step up or a step down transformer.

In the diagram of a step down transformer, one can see that the voltage is decreasing or stepping down (from 10 volts to 6 volts) at the output. But to keep the power same, the output current increases. Thus if a transformer is step down for voltage and it is the step up for the current.

So, in this article we have learned the construction, working principle and use of a Transformer. This is all from this article. If you feel any difficulty to understand this topic you can ask me in the comment section.

Thank you!

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