We already know that a Transistor can amplify the current at its output. Often, the amount of amplified output do not meet the required criteria. That means we need the output current more than that. Then scientist Darlington proposed a **new circuit arrangement with two coupled transistors** which provides huge current gain. This circuit is known as the Darlington pair amplifier. In this article, we are going to discuss the circuit diagram, theory and applications of Darlington pair amplifier.

**Other names:** Darlington pair, Darlington transistor, Darlington amplifier, etc.

**Contents in this article:**

**What is Darlington Pair Transistor Amplifier?****Theory of Darlington pair amplifier****Current gain and Voltage gain of Darlington pair amplifier****Practical Darlington pair amplifier circuit****Applications of Darlington pair amplifier****Drawback of Darlington pair amplifier**

**Darlington pair transistor amplifier**

Darlington Pair amplifier circuit is a connection of two **transistors** which acts as a single unit with overall current gain equal to the multiplication of the individual current gains of the transistors. Darlington** amplifier circuit** is very popular in electronics to achieve high current gain. In this article, we are going to discuss the theory and the applications of Darlington pair amplifier.

**Theory of Darlington pair Amplifier**

Now, its time to discuss the Theory and working principle of Darlington pair transistor. The main discussions in this part are –

*Circuit diagram of Darlington pair amplifier**Equations of Darlington pair*

**Darlington pair amplifier circuit diagram**

The circuit diagram for an ** ideal Darlington pair** amplifier is shown in figure-1. Here, T

_{1}and T

_{2}are the two transistors. The emitter terminal of first transistor (T

_{1}) is connected with the base of the second transistor (T

_{2}). So, for the overall circuit, the input current is base current of T

_{1}and output current is the emitter current of T

_{2}.

**Equations of Darlington pair amplifier**

**For the transistor T _{1}** ,

Emitter current, **I _{E1} =( I_{B1}** +

**I**

_{C1}**)**= (

**1+**_{\beta 1} )

**I**…………… (1)

_{B1}Now this emitter current will enter at the base of the second transistor T_{2}.

So, **for the transistor T _{2}** ,

The base current, **I _{B}**

_{2}

**= I**= (

_{E1}**1+**_{\beta 1} )

**I**

_{B1}Emitter current of **T _{2}** is

**I**

_{E}_{2}=

**(1**+_{\beta 2}

**) I**or,

_{B2}**I**

_{E}_{2}=

**(1+_{\beta 2} )(1+_{\beta 1} ) I**

_{B1}or, **I _{E}**

_{2}=_{\beta 1 \beta 2}

**I**. Because, _{\beta 1 \beta 2} is very much higher than _{\beta 1} and _{\beta 2}. So, we can neglect the other terms in this expression.

_{B1}Thus, the overall current gain is _{\beta 1 \beta 2}. This is the working principle of Darlington pair amplifier.

Typical values of _{\beta} is from 50 to 500. Most common value of _{\beta} is 99 or 100. Thus, the Darlington pair amplifier gives very high current gain.

**Current gain and Voltage gain of Darlington pair amplifier**

From the above calculations we get the current gain of Darlington pair amplifier is almost equal to the product between the current gains of individual transistors. If _{\beta 1} and _{\beta 2} be the current gains of individual transistors then overall current gain of Darlington pair amplifier is _{\beta 1 \beta 2}.

The overall voltage gain remains slightly smaller that unity.

**Practical circuit of Darlington pair**

Figure-2 gives the circuit diagram of a **practical Darlington pair amplifier**.

This circuit consists of two cascaded emitter followers. It also provide the same current gain as that of ideal circuit. This two stage emitter follower circuit has much higher input impedance that that of a single stage emitter follower circuit. The value of input impedance for this circuit is about _{\beta 1 \beta 2}R_{E}. The working principle of practical Darlington pair amplifier is also same as that of ideal Darlington pair.

**Applications of Darlington pair amplifier**

We already have seen that the Darlington pair amplifier circuit can provide a huge current gain. So, it has a wide range of use **as a current Amplifier**. Darlington pair circuit can also be used in **Voltage regulators** and **power amplifiers** in electronic devices like TV, Computer, etc.

**Drawback of Darlington pair circuit**

This circuit is very useful in amplifying the current. But it has a major drawback that the **leakage current** of the first transistor is also amplified by second transistor. As a result there is a possibility of burning out the circuit due to generation of high temperature by this huge leakage current.

This is all about the theory and applications of Darlington pair Amplifier. If you have any doubt on this you can ask me in the comment section. Also, you can visit all the blog posts on this website for absolutely free. This website contains physics and electronics related blog articles.

Thank you!

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