In modern technology, Semiconductor materials have a huge role. Almost all high-speed electronic devices are made of semiconductors. One cannot use a pure semiconductor material to construct those devices. Impure atoms are doped in semiconductors before using them. In this article, we’re going to discuss exactly why we need doping in a semiconductor.
Contents in this article:
- What is doping in semiconductors?
- What are the two types of doping in semiconductors?
- Why do we need doping in semiconductor materials?
What is doping in semiconductors?
Doping is the mixing of impure atoms in a pure semiconductor material. Here the impure atoms refer to the atoms that are different from the pure semiconductor. The most commonly used impure atoms are Boron (B), Aluminum (Al), Arsenic (As), Phosphorus (P), etc.
What are the two types of doping in semiconductors?
One can dope the semiconductors in two ways –
- Doping with Trivalent impure atoms to get p-type semiconductors.
- Doping with pentavalent impure atoms to get n-type of semiconductors.
If we dope with trivalent impure atoms (like B, Al) in a semiconductor then the semiconductor becomes a p-type semiconductor. On the other hand, we will get an n-type semiconductor after mixing pentavalent atoms like As, P, etc. with it.
Why do we need doping in semiconductor materials?
The Conductivity of semiconductors is very poor at room temperature. To get a significant amount of conductivity we need to increase the temperature of the semiconductor to a higher value. But it is practically impossible to use the semiconductor devices at very high temperatures (above 50 degree centigrade). Doping can increase the conductivity of semiconductors by a significant amount even at room temperature and one can use semiconductor devices comfortably at room temperature. Therefore, semiconductor materials are doped to increase their conductivity without increasing the temperature.
People also ask:
- Why is the doping needed in semiconductors?
- What is the advantage of doping?
- Intrinsic and extrinsic types of semiconductors – n-type and p-type
- How the holes move in semiconductors to carry current?
- p-n junction diode