Spherical mirror has two types – **Concave mirror** and **Convex mirror**. In this article, we’re going to discuss the **focal length of a concave mirror**. Though, the focal length of both types of mirrors has the same definition and units, but the **signs of focal length are different for these two mirrors**. Here, we have included all these key points. Again, there is an experiment to determine the focal length of a concave mirror. The **lab data and conclusion** for this experiment are also discussed here.

**Contents in this article:**

**Focal length of a mirror.****How to find the focal length of a mirror?****Determining the focal length of a concave mirror experiment**

**Define focal length of a concave mirror**

The focal length of a mirror is defined as the distance of its focal point from its pole. The focal length of a concave mirror is **negative** in sign if we consider the traditional sign convention rule for the mirror and lens. By the statement **a concave mirror of focal length f** we mean that the distance of the focal point of the mirror from its pole is **f**.

Focal length is the half of **radius of curvature** of the spherical mirror. If **r** is the radius of curvature of the mirror then its focal length will be {\color{Blue}f=\frac{r}{2}}.

**Why is the focal length of a concave mirror negative?**

A concave mirror produces a real image of any object, on the same side of the object from the mirror. According to the usual sign convention rule, the position of the mirror should be considered as the origin point and all distances on the right side are positive and all distances on the left side are negative. Again, the object is always placed on the left side and hence the concave mirror produces images on the left side i.e. negative side.

Parallel rays coming from the object on the left side will converge at a point on the left side or negative side, after reflecting from the mirror. This point is nothing but the focal point. Thus, the focal distance is negative for a concave mirror.

**How to find the focal length of a concave mirror?**

- There is an easy way to find the focal length of a mirror by observing the point where parallel rays coming from a large distance meet. This point of meeting is the focal point. Now, measure the distance from the center of mirror (pole) to that point. This will give the focal length of the mirror.
- One can determine the focal length of the mirror more accurately by an experiment given below.

**Determining the focal length of concave mirror experiment** **with Lab report and conclusion**

In this part, we’re going to discuss the experiment for determining the focal length of a concave mirror with a lab report and conclusion. The concept used is that the parallel rays coming from a large distance meet at a point which is the focal point of the mirror. Then the distance of that point from the mirror will be the focal length of the mirror.

**Apparatus used**

- A concave mirror
- Mirror stand
- Mirror holder
- A Screen
- Screen holder
- Measuring scale

**Ray diagram**

**Procedure**

- Place the concave mirror and the screen on a stand. The mirror and the screen should be facing each other.
- Choose an object whose image is to be formed on the screen be the mirror. The distance of the object should be long enough, ideally 50 cm from the mirror.
- Adjust the relative position of the mirror and screen to get a
**clear image of the object**on the screen. It is better to fix the position of any of the mirror or screen and adjust the position of other. - When you get a clear image of the chosen object, fix the screen and mirror at their respective positions. Then measure the distance between the mirror and the screen with a measuring scale.
**This distance will be the focal length of the mirror**. - Repeat this process for three or five times i.e. take three or five observations.
- The average value of the observations will be the final value of the focal length.

**Experimental data (lab report)**

SL. No. | Position of concave mirror (x) | Position of screen (y) | Focal length = (y-x) cm |

1 | 40 cm | 51 cm | 11 cm |

2 | 40 cm | 51 cm | 11 cm |

3 | 40 cm | 51 cm | 11 cm |

**Observation table**

**Calculation:**

The average value of the focal length of the mirror is, {\color{Blue}f = \frac {11+11+11}{3}}

of,** f = 11 cm**.

**Conclusion:**

The focal length of the concave mirror is **11 cm**.

**A concave mirror has a focal length of 20 cm. Find its radius of curvature. If an object is placed at 30 cm from the mirror, then find the image distance.**

The focal length, **f = 20 cm**. Then using the formula {\color{Blue}f=\frac{r}{2}} we get the radius of curvature of the concave mirror is, **r = 2f**

or, **r = 40 cm**. This is the radius of curvature of the mirror. (**Answer**).

Now, using the mirror formula for concave mirror we get, {\color{Blue} \frac {1}{f} = \frac {1}{v} + \frac {1}{u}}

Here, the object distance, **u = 30 cm**

Focal length, **f = 20 cm**

Then, from the above equation we get, the image distance as, **v = 60 cm**.

So, the image will form at a distance of 60 cm from the concave mirror. (**Answer**).

This is all from this article. If you have any doubts on this topic you can ask me in the comment section!

Thank you!

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